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The Intel 8086 chip is almost identical to the 8088, except that it uses a 16-bit-wide data bus instead of the 8-bit bus of the 8088. It was actually invented before the 8088 but was not chosen for the original PC because IBM wanted to keep costs down by going with an 8-bit bus design.
The 8086 was used in some PC clones and later on in early IBM PS/2 models, but was never a popular choice for PCs. This is probably because by the time it started to be used, the 80286 was introduced, offering much improved performance over the 8086. The 8086 is architecturally identical to the 8088 aside from the wider data bus.
Note: The NEC V30 is an
8086-compatible but actually delivers slightly better performance due to a slightly more
efficient internal design.
Note: Original designs were
made in NMOS, newer ones in CMOS (80C86) for lower power consumption.
Look here for an explanation of the categories in the processor summary table below, including links to more detailed explanations.