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Video Display Standards
Since there are many different ways to specify a video card's capabilities, and so many potential resolutions, color modes, etc., video standards were established in the early years of the PC, primarily by IBM. The intention of these video standards is to define agreed upon resolutions, colors, refresh modes, etc., to make it easier for the manufacturers of PCs, monitors, and software to ensure that their products work together.
In recent years, IBM's fall from dominance has left the video industry without any clear leader to set standards. This, combined with the desire by various manufacturers to develop newer and faster cards, has left the current market with a plethora of different standards. The Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) was formed to define new standards and has had some success in creating widely-accepted new standards. This section takes a look at standards in use in the video industry.